The Barents region is sparsely populated with approximately 5.3 million inhabitants living within its geographical territory, but it is nonetheless the most populous area in the Arctic. Each county has its own distinctive socio-economic and cultural features and each plays a specific role within the nation-state and the region as a whole. Due to the extreme climate and limited infrastructure, the population is largely concentrated to certain cities, as demonstrated below.
The two largest cities are Arkhangelsk and Murmansk in Russia, with 356 000 and 307 000 inhabitants respectively. The largest Nordic city in the region is Oulu, Finland, with 144 000 inhabitants, followed by Umeå, Sweden, with a population of 114 000.
The region is the home for several indigenous peoples comprising about 7 000 Nenets in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, 85 000 Sami people living in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, and 6 000 Vepsians living in the Republic of Karelia. They have lived in this region for centuries and are the main indigenous groups present here.
Despite the interregional variety, the Barents population shares the experiences of remoteness, close connection to nature, polar nights, northern lights and midnight sun, which are unique to the northern region. They are also exposed to the conflict between environmental values and economic development to a larger extent than other parts of Europe, since the exploitation of the region’s vast nature resources could have a negative impact on the vulnerable nature in the region. These characteristics impose both challenges and possibilities for cooperation. At the same time, the regional cultural differences, rooted in history, nationality and languages, limits the extent of a common Barents identity.
There is an overall goal in the Barents region to secure the rights of indigenous peoples as well as ensuring general welfare and attract people to the region in order to enhance the regional cooperation. The Barents Euro-Arctic Council has established several working groups contributing to this development.
Cultural preservation and cultural exchange are fundamental prerequisites for enhancing the Barents Cooperation and is therefore of high importance to the BEAC. Cultural activities contribute to cooperation by promoting the region as a whole, which consequently serves as an important tool to attract investment, create workplaces and thereby enhance peoples’ welfare. Furthermore, cultural exchange across national borders creates an understanding, tolerance and proximity between the people in the Barents region, which strengthens the prospect for further cooperation also on higher political level.
Read more about the cultural cooperation in the region.